Purpose: Alterations in DNA damage repair (DDR) genes occur in up to 25% of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and may sensitize to platinum chemotherapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in DDR-mutant (DDRmut) mCRPC.
Methods: We assessed response to platinum chemotherapy based on DDR gene alteration status in men with mCRPC who underwent tumor and germline genomic profiling. Patients with deleterious alterations in a gene panel that included BRCA2, BRCA1, ATM, PALB2, FANCA, and CDK12 were considered DDRmut.
Results: A total of 109 patients with mCRPC received platinum-based chemotherapy between October 2013 and July 2018. Sixty-four of 109 patients were taxane refractory and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) naïve. Within this subset, DDRmut was found in 16/64 patients (25%) and was associated with an increased likelihood of achieving a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline of 50% or more from baseline (PSA50; odds ratio, 7.0; 95% CI, 1.9 to 29.2). Time on platinum chemotherapy tended to be longer in the DDRmut group (median, 3.0 v 1.6 months; hazard ratio, 0.55, 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.24). No difference in survival was detected. Of 8 patients with DDRmut disease who received platinum-based therapy after a PARPi, 3/7 evaluable patients had radiographic partial response or stable disease, and 2/7 had a PSA50 response. None of 4 patients with ATM mutations had platinum responses regardless of prior PARPi exposure.
Conclusion: Patients with DDRmut disease had better response to platinum-based chemotherapy, suggesting that DDR status warrants prospective validation as a potential biomarker for patient selection. Responses to platinum chemotherapy were observed in BRCA-altered prostate cancer after PARPi progression. Additional studies are needed to determine the predictive role of individual genes on platinum sensitivity in the context of other clinical and genomic factors.